K3's Astronomy - Moon - Details
"When I consider your heavens, the work of your fingers, the moon and the stars which You have set in place, what is Man that You are mindful of him?" -- Psalm 8:3,4

All the following photos were taken by Philips Vesta Pro webcam at prime focus of 8" Orion Optics Newtonian (focal length 1200mm) or with 2x or 3x Barlow.
Craters
Birt Catharina Clavius
Copernicus Cyrillus Eratosthenes
Plato Ptolemaeus Theophilus
Rima, Rupes, Vallis
Rima Ariadaeus Rima Hyginus Rupes Recta
Vallis Alpes        




Crater Clavius


Click the image to show full resolution (0.32"/pixel)



Click the image to show full resolution (0.32"/pixel)

Clavius
11.02.2003, 21:40-22:20 (20:40-21:20 UT)
Moon Age: 10d 10h

Resolution: 0.64 arcsec/pixel
Telescope: 8" OrionOptics Newtonian (f=1200mm)
Camera: Vesta 680K + Barlow 3X
Result focal length: 3600mm
Exposure: 300x1/100s (gain 50%)
Capturing: K3CCDTools
Processing: Registax + K3CCDTools
Seeing: very strong wind with strokes

This is my favourite crater. Its walled plain is decorated by a half circle of 6 small craters like a string of pearls. They are nicely sorted according to size - Rutherfurd - Clavius D - C - N - J - JA. The diameter of Clavius is 225km.

Object Size
Clavius 225km
Rutherfurd 48 x 54 km
Porter 52km
Blancanus 105km

The seeing was very unsteady - I have never encountered such bad seeing so far. I was not able to focus! You can look at sample AVI which demonstrates the poor seeing conditions here.
But I haven't given up and I captured 11 AVI files with total size of 2GB - 3327 frames. First of all I had to filter a large amount of useless frames.

Processing:
1, From each captured AVI file I automatically selected the best frames in K3CCDTools and exported them to BMP sequence - as a result I got about 1600 frames
2, I loaded 1600 BMP frames into K3CCDTools and export them to AVI file
3, 300 best frames were stacked in Registax
4, Soft wavelet in Registax
5, Unsharp mask (1, 0, 133) in K3CCDTools
6, Converted to grayscale in PhotoPaint
7, Gaussian blur 0.6pix + adaptive unsharp mask 75%

The second image is the result of processing the stacked image from Registax (product of step 3,) and further processing in K3CCDTools:
4, Unsharp mask (3, 0, 500) in K3CCDTools
5, Unsharp mask (2, 0, 150) in K3CCDTools
6, Converted to grayscale in PhotoPaint
7, Gaussian blur 0.6pix + adaptive unsharp mask 75%

More information about Processing High Resolution Moon Images
Compare this photo to the photo taken by my old small telescope.


Click the image to show full resolution (0.48"/pixel)
Clavius
21.4.2002, 22:00 (20:00 UT)
Moon Age: 9d 0h

Resolution: 0.96 arcsec/pixel
Telescope: 8" OrionOptics Newtonian (f=1200mm)
Camera: Vesta 680K + Barlow 2X
Result focal length: 2400mm
Exposure: 150x1/25s (gain 5%)
Capturing: K3CCDTools
Processing: Registax + K3CCDTools
Seeing: strong wind with strokes


Processing:
1, Stacked in Registax (40 best frames) with Partial coverage + Expand image options checked
2, Soft wavelet in Registax + gamma 1.10
3, Unsharp mask (1, 0, 200) in K3CCDTools
4, Color balance and histogram stretching in Corel PhotoPaint

More information about Processing High Resolution Moon Images
Compare this photo to the photo taken by my old small telescope.


Click the image to show full resolution (0.48"/pixel)
The same AVI file as above, but for all processing was used only K3CCDTools

Processing:
1, Automatic selection of 150 best frames in K3CCDTools
2, Stacked in X2 mode in K3CCDTools
3, Histogram color autobalance + gamma 1.10 + unsharp mask (3, 0, 600) in K3CCDTools
4, Saved as PNG image and loaded into another K3CCDTools session
5, Applied another unsharp mask (2, 0, 100) to PNG image

More information about Processing High Resolution Moon Images
Compare this photo to the photo taken by my old small telescope.


Rupes Recta & Rima Birt


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Rupes Recta & Rima Birt
21.4.2002, 21:52 (19:52 UT)
Moon Age: 9d 0h

Resolution: 0.96 arcsec/pixel
Telescope: 8" OrionOptics Newtonian (f=1200mm)
Camera: Vesta 680K + Barlow 2X
Result focal length: 2400mm
Exposure: 6x1/25s (gain 5%)
Capturing: K3CCDTools
Processing: K3CCDTools (UnsharpMask 2,0,300) + Corel PhotoPaint
Seeing: strong wind with strokes

Rupes Recta (The Straight Wall) is the best known breakage on the Moon. Parallel to Rupes Recta the Rima Birt is situated. Craters Birt and Birt A are nicely visible.

Object Size
Rupes Recta Length 110km, height 240-300m, apparent width 2.5km
Rima Birt Length 50km, width 1.5km
Crater Birt 17km / 3470m
Crater Birt A 6.8km / 1040m

Compare this photo to the photo taken by my old small telescope.


Click the image to show full resolution (0.48"/pixel)
Rupes Recta & Rima Birt
21.4.2002, 21:55 (19:55 UT)
Moon Age: 9d 0h

Resolution: 0.96 arcsec/pixel
Telescope: 8" OrionOptics Newtonian (f=1200mm)
Camera: Vesta 680K + Barlow 2X
Result focal length: 2400mm
Exposure: 6x1/25s (gain 5%)
Capturing: K3CCDTools
Processing: K3CCDTools (X2 mode) + Maxim DL Demo + Corel PhotoPaint
Seeing: strong wind with strokes

The same night, another AVI file


Crater Plato & Vallis Alpes


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Crater Plato & Vallis Alpes
21.4.2002, 21:42 (19:42 UT)
Moon Age: 9d 0h

Resolution: 0.96 arcsec/pixel
Telescope: 8" OrionOptics Newtonian (f=1200mm)
Camera: Vesta 680K + Barlow 2X
Result focal length: 2400mm
Exposure: 6x1/25s (gain 5%)
Capturing: K3CCDTools
Processing: K3CCDTools (Y channel used, X2, UnsharpMask 4,0,200) + Corel PhotoPaint
Seeing: strong wind with strokes

Nice shadow of Plato's crater border is visible in the bottom of crater Plato. In the bottom of Vallis Alpes there is a very thin furrow - only a few hundreed meters wide. It is not visible in my photograph, but it is challenge for me to future.
The conditions were rather bad - strong wind strokes cased scope vibrations. I captured AVIs between these wind strokes. I also noticed, that my scope was not properly collimated, but I didn't want to adjust it in such windy weather.

Object Size
Plato 101km / 2000m
Vallis Alpes Length: 130km
Width: 10km

Compare this photo to the photo taken by my old small telescope.


Click the image to show full resolution (0.48"/pixel)
The same source as above, but traditional RGB processing. The same post-processing as above was used (the same unsharp mask parameters).


Craters Copernicus & Eratosthenes


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Crater Copernicus
21.4.2002, 21:49 (19:49 UT)
Moon Age: 9d 0h

Resolution: 0.96 arcsec/pixel
Telescope: 8" OrionOptics Newtonian (f=1200mm)
Camera: Vesta 680K + Barlow 2X
Result focal length: 2400mm
Exposure: 8x1/25s (gain 5%)
Capturing:
K3CCDTools
Processing: K3CCDTools (UnsharpMask 2,0,200) + Corel PhotoPaint
Seeing: strong wind with strokes

The conditions were rather bad - strong wind strokes cased scope vibrations. I captured AVIs between these wind strokes. I also noticed, that my scope was not properly collimated, but I didn't want to adjust it in such windy weather.

Object Size
Copernicus 93km / 3760m
Eratosthenes 58km / 3570m

Click the image to show full resolution (0.48"/pixel)
Crater Copernicus - Detail
21.4.2002, 21:49 (19:49 UT)
Moon Age: 9d 0h

Resolution: 0.96 arcsec/pixel
Telescope: 8" OrionOptics Newtonian (f=1200mm)
Camera: Vesta 680K + Barlow 2X
Result focal length: 2400mm
Exposure: 40x1/25s (gain 5%)
Capturing:
K3CCDTools
Processing: K3CCDTools (X2, UnsharpMask 4,0,240) + Corel PhotoPaint
Seeing: strong wind with strokes

The same AVI file as above. Unfortunatelly, the best frames of the AVI file didn't contain Eratosthenes crater. So I decided to process at least nearest surrounding of Copernicus crater. The best 40 frames were selected and stacked. The crater is more sharp than in above photo.


Theophilus, Cyrillus & Catharina Craters


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Theophilus, Cyrillus & Catharina
27.6.2001, 22:00 (20:00 UT)
Moon Age: 6d 8h

Resolution: 0.96 arcsec/pixel
Telescope: 8" OrionOptics Newtonian (f=1200mm)
Camera: Vesta 680K + Barlow 2X
Result focal length: 2400mm
Exposure:
Capturing:
K3CCDTools
Processing: MaximDL Demo, Corel PhotoPaint


Crater Size
Theophilus 100km / 4440m
Cyrillus 98km
Catharina 100km / 3130m

Click the image to show full resolution (0.48"/pixel)
New reprocessing with new K3CCDTools (25.4.2002)

The same source as above, but new features of K3CCDTools were used (best frames selection+unsharp-mask).
16 best frames of 111 were selected, stacked and unsharp-masked in K3CCDTools.


Ptolemaeus, Alphonsus & Arzachel Craters


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Ptolemaeus
09.04.2003, 21:41 (19:41 UT)
Moon Age: 8d 1h

Resolution: 0.64 arcsec/pixel
Telescope: 8" OrionOptics Newtonian (f=1200mm)
Camera: Vesta 675SC2 + Barlow 3X, IRB
Result focal length: 3600mm
Exposure: 116x1/5s (gain 60%)
Capturing: K3CCDTools
Processing: Registax + K3CCDTools
Seeing: cloudy, image taken through clouds
Temperature: ~3C

 

Crater Size
Ptolemaeus 153km / 2400m
Ptolemaeus A
Ammonius
9km / 1850m
Alphonsus 118km / 2730m
Albategnius 136km
Klein 44km / 1460m

When the Moon appeared in a hole between clouds appeared, I took my scope out to the balcony. It was in 21:05 (local time). I switched on my fan cooling system and in 35 minutes I was able to image (without fan I was able to image after 2 hours). Unfortunatelly, clouds covered the whole sky and I could image only through clouds. That's why I had to use relatively long exposure 1/5s and high gain.
But I am pleased with result.
It is interesting to see the central peak in Alphonsus crater and compare it to the below photo.

Processing:
1, I joined 3 captured AVIs into one file in by means of VirtualDub
2, found best frame in K3CCDTools and used as reference frame in Registax
3, 119 frames stacked in Registax in Expand mode
4, applied various wavelet settings - the borders of photo (in Expand mode) are too distorted when stronger wavelet is used
5, mosaic from more result bitmaps was created in Corel PhotoPaint (softer wavelet bitmaps are used in image borders)
6, mosaic combined with direct result of Registax in K3CCDTools

I also tried all processing in K3CCDTools and get very same result (undistinguishable). Finally I used Registax result, because of its Expand mode (wider result field of view).


Place mouse pointer above the photo to see the name of craters.
Click the image to show full resolution (0.48"/pixel)
Ptolemaeus, Alphonsus & Arzachel Craters
28.6.2001, 22:36 (20:36 UT)
Moon Age: 7d 10h

Resolution: 0.96 arcsec/pixel
Telescope: 8" OrionOptics Newtonian (f=1200mm)
Camera: Vesta 680K + Barlow 2X
Result focal length: 2400mm
Exposure: 37 frames stacked
Capturing: K3CCDTools
Processing: Registax


Crater Size
Ptolemaeus 153km / 2400m
Ptolemaeus A
Ammonius
9km / 1850m
Alphonsus 118km / 2730m
Arzachel 97km / 3610m
Albategnius 136km
Herschel 41km /3770m
Klein 44km / 1460m


See also Stacking versus selecting the best frame


Rima Ariadaeus


Click the image to show full resolution (0.48"/pixel)
Rima Ariadaeus
27.6.2001, 22:12 (20:12 UT)
Moon Age: 6d 8h

Resolution: 0.96 arcsec/pixel
Telescope: 8" OrionOptics Newtonian (f=1200mm)
Camera: Vesta 680K + Barlow 2X
Result focal length: 2400mm
Capturing:
K3CCDTools
Processing: Registax (processed 1.6.2002)

Rima Hyginus


Click the image to show full resolution (0.32"/pixel)
Rima Hyginus
09.04.2003, 21:49 (19:49 UT)
Moon Age: 8d 1h

Resolution: 0.64 arcsec/pixel
Telescope: 8" OrionOptics Newtonian (f=1200mm)
Camera: Vesta 675SC2 + Barlow 3X, IRB
Result focal length: 3600mm
Exposure: 108x1/5s (gain 60%)
Capturing: K3CCDTools
Processing: Registax + K3CCDTools
Seeing: cloudy, image taken through clouds
Temperature: ~3C

Rima Hyginus is very interesting lunar feature. It is 220km long and is divided by crater Hyginus. The width of rima is 2-3km, the depth several hundreds meters.
In the lower left part Rima Triesnecker is visible.

Crater Size
Hyginus 10.6km / 770m
Silberschlag 13.4km / 2530m

When the Moon appeared in a hole between clouds appeared, I took my scope out to the balcony. It was in 21:05 (local time). I switched on my fan cooling system and in 35 minutes I was able to image (without fan I was able to image after 2 hours). Unfortunatelly, clouds covered the whole sky and I could image only through clouds. That's why I had to use relatively long exposure 1/5s and high gain.
That's why the result is rather noisy and not sharp.

Processing:
1, I joined 3 captured AVIs into one file in by means of VirtualDub
2, found best frame in K3CCDTools and used as reference frame in Registax
3, 108 frames stacked in Registax in Expand mode
4, applied various wavelet settings - the borders of photo (in Expand mode) are too distorted when stronger wavelet is used
5, mosaic from more result bitmaps was created in Corel PhotoPaint (softer wavelet bitmaps are used in image borders)

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Last Update: 12.04.2003